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Fabric Science


Changeant - in French the word means "changing" and "dazzling" - is woven from different colored fine warp and weft threads in a plain weave. A dazzling, iridescent color effect is the result, depending on light incidence and the direction from which viewed. A clever choice of two colors and a shiny yarn material, such as silk, can enhance this effect enormously.


Chenille is French for both "caterpillar" and "silk trim". A special chenille yarn must first be made for the velour fabric we call chenille. For this purpose, a so-called pre-product is woven and cut into narrow strips in warp direction. It looks a bit like a caterpillar because of the thread ends that protrude laterally - it gives a velvet-like look and feel if you weave it as a weft yarn. Chenille is durable, warming and mostly opaque and can be used as a furnishing, as well as an upholstery fabric.


Cretonne - the German spellings Kretonne und Kreton also exist - is a simple, universal, plain weave cotton fabric. Actually it is nothing more than a coarse cotton cloth. Nevertheless, it is often called Cretonne as a raw material for textile printing companies, as well as printed finished goods in plain or with patterns. Cretonne can be used as a furnishing fabric or as a light fabric.

Double Weave

A double fabric is, as the name suggests, a very complex product consisting of two separate fabric layers, which are bonded together and produced on a loom in one single process. Double fabric can have different colors or patterns on both sides. The joining of upper and lower fabric can be accomplished through bonding, or by a so-called exchange of goods, where the fabric crosses and the one or the other is on top.


Velvet is a fabric that is produced by weaving (six thread fabric). A second weft or warp (accordingly weft pile velvet/warp pile velvet) is incorporated during production. This thread forms loops, which result in the characteristic fibrous web on the reverse side after having been cut.


Taffeta is a premium fabric, although it is woven into the simplest of all bonds, the canvass bond. Made of fine filament yarns, however, and in the best and original case made of pure or artificial silk, such as acetate. It always has a dull but intense shine that often shimmers if one mixes the thread colors. And it always bears certain stiffness since it is woven very tight, immediately showing typical Taffeta creases when touched. Sometimes this is additionally alleviated with a certain finish.


Velour is a knitted fabric, allowing it to stretch. It combines the stretchy properties of knits such as spandex with the rich appearance and feel of velvet. Velour is used in dance wear for the ease of movement it affords, and is also popular for warm, colorful, casual clothing. When used as upholstery, velour often is substituted for velvet. Velour is also widely used in the manufacture of theater drapes and stage curtains. Velours used for this range from 16oz per linear yard to 32oz per linear yard (0.5 - 1.0 kg/m). In the last decade, velour has been used for pillow covers and mattress coverings. Luxury memory foam mattresses usually come outfitted with Jacquard velour covers, for their comfort and elasticity, as well as their flame resistance. Cotton velour is treated with flame retardant chemicals when used in this application. In contrast, many lower-end air mattresses come manufactured with velour's sleeping surfaces.

Trevira CS

Trevira® is the brand name for a permanently flame retardant polyester fiber. It meets DIN 4102 B1 criteria. The flame-retardance is created with a modified polymer. Trevira®CS is suitable for the production of decorative and upholstery fabrics, fine fleece for wall coverings and fiber fill for bedding.


Voile - translated from French, the word actually means "sail" - is a veil-like, lightweight and semi-transparent fabric in plain weave. A touch of cloth - hence its French name - that is set into motion with breath of wind. Traditionally, Voile was produced primarily as a hard twisted cotton yarn and linen. Today, it is often interwoven with highly wound filament yarns made of chemical fibers. For so-called full-voile, one weaves highly twisted yarns in the warp and weft, for semi-voile only in the warp. The Voile Broché shows small, additional patterns that are woven according to Broché technology, the Voile quadrillé has a pattern made of squares. In all cases - Voile is an ideal curtain fabric.


Type designation for woven and knitted fabric with large repeat patterns, e.g. Jacquard Damask, Jacquard tapestry, Brocades, etc.


A Rapport - in French, a "rapporter" means "bring back" or "apply" - is the so-called textile design model unit: What is meant here is the length and width according to which the pattern repeats itself. The weave rapport is about how the weave pattern repeats itself according to the number of warp and weft threads. The number of centimeters length and width with which the motif is repeated will be specified when repeating a print or Jacquard motif. One also speaks of length and width repeats in this case.

Flame Retardant

Only certain textile fabrics that meet specific criteria according to DIN 4102 B1 may be designated as flame retardant. They do not ignite immediately on contact with heat, sparks or open flames, and even if they are set afire, they do not continue to burn, but extinguish rather quickly.

In Fabric Grain Direction

The term "in fabric grain direction" is important when cutting fabrics: A cut sheet is considered to be in grain direction when its long axis runs exactly parallel to the warp threads, in the so-called thread line while laying on top of the fabric. In order to obtain an in fabric grain direction cutting edge, one withdraws a thread from the fabric and then cuts along the resulting line. Even broken rail edges are practically in fabric grain direction.


A fabric’s haptics means the feel of fabric - soft or rough, smooth or fluffy, for example. The term is derived from the Greek expression "tangible", denoting all that we can perceive through touch. Haptics is one of the most important properties a fabric can possess, in addition to appearance and performance characteristics.

Textile Finishing

Textile finishing describes all finishing methods to improve raw fabrics, such as anti flame, anti microbial, anti pilling, anti soiling, roughening, coating, steaming, decatizing, ginning, fungicides, impregnation, calendering, carbonizing, mercerizing, sanforizing, fleecing and fulling finishes.

Martindale Rubs

The Martindale method is used to determine the abrasion resistance of textile fabrics. The method simulates a seat cover's natural wear and tear where a sample of the test fabric is rubbed against a standard woolen fabric under a predefined weight load. The number of rubs are measured here that lead to the wear and tear of two threads. The national textile institute predefines Martindale rubs for different textile fields of application. Fabrics must have at least 10.000 rubs to be considered qualitatively suitable for personal use.